ATICA: Affiliated Timber Investment Conversion Advisors, Inc.



































Trade Terms

Trade Term Definition
A Index
Accepted Chips Wood chips that meet the specification of thickness and size for processing into pulp
Air Dried Seasoned by exposure to the atmosphere without artificial heat
Alder Alnus rubra. Red Alder, a deciduous tree of the Pacific Northwest, having pinkish-brown wood that is used in interior finishing furniture and cabinetry. It is very receptive to stains. Other alders include A glutinosa, British Alder A. maritima, Formosan Alder.
All Heart Lumber of heartwood throughout, free of sapwood.
Allowable Characteristics In lumber grading, the varying extent to which certain characteristics such as knots, splits or checks are allowed within the various grades of lumber.
ALS American Lumber Standard.
Ambient Temperature Drying Drying without heated air. Another name for Air Drying.
American Lumber Standard A voluntary product standard developed by the National Bureau of Standards in cooperation with wood producers, distributors and users. The American Lumber Standard is designated PS 20-99 (Product Standard 20 issued in 1999). It establishes the dimensions for various types of lumber products, the technical requirements, and the methods of testing, grading, and marking.
American Lumber Standards Committee (ALSC) ALSC inspectors conduct field checks on certified grading agencies, and the committee's independent Board of Review has the power to discipline those committing infractions.
American National Standards institute A private organization of manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers that establishes commercial standards for a variety of products.
Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate A waterborne wood preservative suitable for treating all types of softwood lumber
And Better Lumber so graded contains an unspecified percentage of pieces that are of higher grade than the lowest acceptable grade.
And Longer Indicates a given quantity of lumber containing lengths in excess of a certain size, such as in "16 foot and longer. This specification is generally understood to include all the lengths normally found in a random assortment; however, there is no guarantee of the number of pieces of each length unless these are specified at the time of sale.
And Wider Abbreviated "&Wdr", that indicates a given quantity of lumber contains widths in excess of a certain size. To mean all the widths normally found in a load up to 12-in, however, there is no guarantee as to the number of pieces of each width in the load unless these are specified at the time of sale.
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service A federal agency that regulates the import, export, and intra-U.S.A. movement of animals, plants, and pests.
Annual ring The layer of growth added to the circumference of a tree in one year, including both springwood and summerwood.
Anti-Fungus Treated Wood that has been treated by a dip or spray to retard the growth of fungi, and to help the wood retain its bright appearance.
Ant-Stain Treated Lumber or other wood product treated with any of various chemicals to retard staining caused by exposure to weather or fungi. Sometimes called Anti-Travel Treated.
Appearance Grade A term for lumber suitable for exposed use such as in siding, soffits, paneling, or trim. Mostly clear wood, a limited number of sound tight knots may be allowed.
Approved Grader A person usually a manufacturer's employee, who has been trained and approved for grading lumber but is limited to the use of grade stamps only.
Arbor An axle or spindle that supports cutting tools that spin or rotate.
Architectural Products Custom-milled decorative millwork items.
Authorized Grader One who has been authorized to act as an agent for an approved grading agency.
B Index
Baby Square A piece of lumber, approximately four inches square, produced for the Japanese market. Used for turnings on lathes.
Back The side of a piece of lumber or plywood, opposite the face. The back is the side with the lower overall quality or appearance.
Back Cut The second and final cut made when felling a tree. The back cut is made on the opposite side of the tree. The first cut is on the other side.
Back Haul The movement of goods by truck or rail on the return trip after a loaded outward bound run.
Band Mill A sawmill using a toothed, endless steel blade for its saw.
Band Saw A saw consisting of a continuous piece of flexible steel, with teeth on one or both sides, used to cut logs into cants and also to rip lumber.
Bark Pocket A patch of bark partially or wholly enclosed in the wood.
Barker A tool used for removing bark, or a machine designed for the purpose. The bark is then separated and sold separately.
Bd Ft, BF Board feet, or foot.
Bdl Bundle.
BDT Bone dry ton.
BDU Bone dry unit.
Bed Plate Another name for an Anvil.
Best Opening Face System (BOF) Software used in a sawmill. It determines the optimum sawing pattern to be used on a log in order to maximize the lumber yield of the log. The computer compares all possible sawing patterns to show which one would be more efficient.
BHND Boxed heart no defect.
Bin Sorter A mechanical system in which lumber is sorted by length, width, or thickness by dropping or ejecting pieces into individual bins or compartments. Also called a drop sorter.
Biomass Boiler A boiler that burns bark, sawdust, wood scraps, and other waste material. Also called a hogged-fuel boiler.
Biomass Harvesting The practice of harvesting and using the entire tree, including the top, limbs and stump, with the non-commercial portions generally chipped to be used as fuel.
Birdseye A contortion of a grain in a piece of lumber in the shape of a small circle or ellipse, sometimes resembling the eye of a bird. Lumber with this feature is sometimes desired for its decorative effect.
Black Knot A resinous knot that has oxidized to a black color.
Blank A piece of lumber, sometimes rough, from which finished products such as pencils, handles, or various milled items are made.
Blanked Lumber Lumber dressed to a size in excess of standard dressed size but scant of nominal size. It is usually intended for later remanufacture.
Blanker The machine used to produce wood blanks for the further processing into a finished product.
Blemish Anything marring the appearance of lumber or plywood.
Blind Punk A dark streak in wood, often resembling a knot.
Blink Conk Hidden decay in a tree. Conks are usually a visible sign of decay they sometimes fall off the tree, however, and the defect may go undetected by a timber cruiser or log scaler.
Blister In wood finishing, a defect that occurs when volatiles leaving a film are trapped and expand inside the fill.
Block Tally A method of tallying lumber without counting each piece. Lumber is stacked in blocks. The blocks are measured and the board footage is calculated.
Blueprints Detailed drawings showing how to build a structure.
Board A piece of lumber less than two inches in nominal thickness and one inch or more in width.
Board Foot The basic unit of measurement of lumber. One board foot is equal to a 1-inch board 12 inches in width and 1 foot in length.
Board Measure A term used to indicate that a board foot is the unit of measurement of lumber.
Board Rule Tally A method of tallying certain grades and types of lumber. It is tallied on the 1/2 inch. The tallyman uses a flexible stick, or rule, to measure.
Bolster A piece of wood, generally a nominal four inches in cross section, placed between stickered packages of lumber or other wood products to provide space for the entry and exit of the forks of a lift truck.
Bone Dry Ton A quantity of wood pulp that weighs 2,000 lbs at zero percent moisture content.
Bone Dry Unit A measure of wood chip volume equal to 2,400 pounds of bone-dry chips from which all the moisture has been removed.
Bottom Rail Pieces of lumber, cut from shop, that are used to form the bottom horizontal member of a door.
Bound Water In wood technology, moisture that is intimately associated with the finer wood elements of the cell wall by adsorption and held with sufficient force to reduce the vapor pressure.
Box Piling A method of stacking random-length lumber for drying. Full-length boards are placed on the outer edges of each layer, and shorter boards are alternated lengthwise to produce square-ended piles.
Boxed Heart A piece of lumber in which the heart, or pith, is enclosed within the four sides of the piece.
Boxed Heart No Defect A classification for lumber in which a piece with boxed heart is not considered defective.
Boxed Pith Pith that is enclosed within the four sides of a piece of lumber.
Branch Knots Two or more divergent knots sawed lengthwise and tapering toward the pith at a common point.
Brashness A condition of wood characterized by coarse, conspicuous annual rings. Such wood has a low resistance to shock and has a tendency to fail abruptly across the grain without splintering.
Break Bulk To divide a large shipment into components to distribute to scattered destinations.
Breakage That portion of a tree lost due to the break-up of the tree as it is felled. Trees may be badly broken if they are felled across other logs, stumps, etc.
Breakdown Hoist A hoist used typically on the infeed of a planer to unstack a unit of rough lumber so that it may be fed through the planer.
Bright Unstained. Untreated
Bright Sapwood As defined in the American Lumber Standard, sapwood that shows no stain and is not limited in any grade unless specifically stated in the grade description.
Bright Sapwood No Defect A term that indicates that sapwood is permitted in each piece of lumber, in any amount.
Bright Stock Unstained or untreated wood.
British Thermal Unit (BTU) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
Broken Unit A number of pieces of lumber or plywood less than the number in a standard unit or package.
Brow Log A large log laid beside the track or road at a log dump or landing to prevent logs from swinging or kicking back when unloaded from railroad cars or log trucks.
Brown Rot A type of decay found in wood and resulting from fungi. The fungi remove cellulose, leaving a dry, crumbly residue.
BSND Bright sapwood no defect.
Buck for Grade To buck, or cut, a tree into various lengths in order to maximize the grade or quality of the logs. The opposite of cutting the tree into predetermined lengths, often equal without regard to log grade.
Bug Wood Timber that has been killed by insects.
Bulk Density The bone-dry weight of wood chips used in the papermaking process.
Bull Edger The first and usually, largest edger behind the headrig, to which low-grade cants are directed for ripping to widths suitable for further manufacture on a resaw or trimmer.
Burl A distortion of grain, usually caused by abnormal growth due to injury to the tree.
Butt Cut The first log above the stump. A slight vertical cut at the ends of bottom chord on a truss to ensure uniform span and provide clearance for sheathing. Also called a Heel Cut or Nub Cut.
Butt Flare The swell of a log where a tree was cut close to the ground. Common in cedars.
Butt Rot Decay in the lower part of a tree.
Buyer A generic term for anyone purchasing forest products. Specifically one assigned to purchase products at the secondary or retail levels.
Buyer's Market A situation in which supply exceeds demand, causing prices to fall and giving buyers the upper hand in negotiations.
Buying Service A company that buys wood products for retailers or industrial users for a set fee or commission.
C Index
California Mill A lumber producer in Northern California, a region included in the Inland West.
CamBio Debarker A device that removes bark from a log by abrasion. The bark's bond with the wood is broken at the cambium layer as the log revolves while it passes through the machine.
Cambium A cell layer in the outer part of the tree that produces new wood for the growth of the tree. The cambium encloses the other living parts of the tree. Cambial cells divide to produce wood cells on the inside of the cambium layer and phloem, and bark cells on the outer side of the cambium.
Camel Back A conveyor system in which lumber drops from an upper level of a sawmill to a lower level.
Camp Run The total log output of a logging operation, unsorted by grade.
Cant A large slab cut from a log at the headsaw, usually having one or more rounded edges, and destined for further processing by other saws.
Cant Hook A wooden lever with an iron hook at the lower end, used in turning logs or cants. Also called a cant dog.
Cant Sawing Reducing logs to cants, or flat-sided squares or rectangles, for further manufacture at a different machine or site.
Carbide Tip Saw A saw equipped with specially hardened teeth to resist wear.
Carload A railroad car filled to normal capacity. The volume in a carload will vary.
Carriage The framework to which a log is fastened during manufacture at the head saw. A two-wheeled device suspended from a skyline that carries logs. The log carrier on a tramway system.
Casehardened A condition of lumber in which varying degrees of stress occur at different depths below the surface, causing it to cup when resawn or worked.
Cash Discount An incentive offered by a seller to obtain fast payment. In lumber and plywood transactions, a discount of 1% or 2% from the amount stated on the invoice is often allowed if payment is within a specified time.
Cat Face A scar on a tree or log, caused by fire or injury to the growing tree.
Cats and Dogs Odds and ends, various odd sizes, lengths, or grades of lumber. They are usually the less popular items in an inventory that are harder to sell.
Certificate of Inspection A document issued by a grading agency that assures the buyer that the shipment of lumber has been examined by a qualified inspector ad that the lumber in the shipment is of the grade indicated.
Certified Grader A person who has been certified to inspect and supervise the work of approved graders. He is authorized to issue certificates attesting to the grade of a shipment of lumber.
Certified Scaler A log scaler employed by one of several independent log scaling bureaus. The scalers of these bureaus are trained and certified by the individual bureau.
Chair Hoist A breakdown hoist driven by a chain.
Change Order An order for a change in the construction of a house, as for an additional window, additional lumber on an order, etc.
Chaps A protective garment sometime worn by loggers when using a chain saw.
Charge The total amount of wood products to be dried in a dry kiln.
Check A lengthwise separation of wood, normally occurring across or through the rings of annual growth and usually the result of seasoning.
Cheese Block A chock that prevents a log from rolling.
Chemical Stain Stains that occur in lumber or logs through the oxidation of minerals or chemicals within the cells.
Chimney A vertical opening in lumber pile to assist air circulation.
Chip A small piece of wood used to make pulp. Made from wood waste in the mill. Uniform in size, and are larger and coarser than sawdust.
Chip Breaker A pressure bar used in conjunction with some planing or moulding machines to prevent the knives from tearing the grain.
Chip Marks Shallow depressions or indentations on or in the surface of dressed lumber, caused by shavings or chips getting embedded in the surface during dressing.
Chip Screen In pulpmaking, a device used to separate usable chips from other material such as sawdust, dirt, etc.
Chipper Knives The knives that reduce wood to chips for use in pulping or for the manufacture of compressed wood panels. The design of the knife contributes to the shape of the chip.
Chisel-Tooth Saw A saw with a wedge-shaped cutting edge at the end of each tooth that is at right angles to the surface of the saw.
Circle Mill One with a circular saw head-rig.
Circle Saw A round saw with teeth around the circumference. Also known as a rotary saw.
Clear Free or practically free of all blemishes, characteristics, or defects. A select grade of lumber.
Clear Face The side of a piece of wood that is without blemish.
Climb Cutting A method of machining with a cutting saw in which the saw is rotating in the same direction as the material being cut is traveling.
Climb Sawing A method of sawing in which a circular saw blade rotates in the same direction that the material being sawn is fed into the saw. Also called Climb Cutting.
CLIS California Lumber Inspection Service and Testing Agency.
Close Grain Wood grain characterized by an average of approximately six, but not more than approximately 30, annual rings per inch on either end of a piece of lumber.
Cluster Knots Two or more knots grouped together as a unit with the fibers of the wood deflected around the entire unit.
Coarse Grain Wood with wide and conspicuous annual rings, wood with less than four rings per inch.
Cold Deck A pile of logs stored for future use, commonly built through the summer and early fall to provide logs for late winter and early spring mill operations.
Collapse Irregular shrinkage in wood above the fiber saturation point, caused by the collapse of wood cells as free water is drawn out of the cell cavities without replacement with air or more water.
Commission Salesperson One who sells forest products for a producer and receives a certain fee for his-her efforts, with the fee based on the volume sold and the price received. Some commission salespersons work for the company for which they sell; others represent a number of companies and are self-employed.
Commodity Item A general term referring to those items of lumber or other products that are sold in sizeable volume, usually in full carload quantities.
Compacted As applied to pulp and wood residues, a load that is pressed together as by settling in transit due to the weight of material above it.
Compartment Kiln A type of dry kiln in which the entire charge of lumber is dried as a single unit.
Compression Failure Minute ridges formed by crumpling or bucking of cell walls, resulting from excessive compression along the grain.
Compression Wood Abnormal wood that forms on the lower side of leaning or crooked, coniferous trees. It is characterized by its wide growth rings, color, hardness, brittleness, and generally lifeless appearance.
Condition Drying A phase in the kiln-drying process in which moisture is put back into the wood.
Conditioning The adjustment of the moisture content of wood to that existing in use, either through controlled drying in a kiln or by exposure to site conditions.
Confirmation A written verification of an order issued by a purchaser, listing the details of a transaction.
Confirmed Letter of Credit In the export trade, a letter of credit issued by a foreign bank, with its validity confirmed by a U.S. bank. An exporter who obtains a confirmed letter of credit is guaranteed payment by the U. S. bank even if the foreign buyer defaults.
Conk A fungus growth that extends as a raised body from the trunk of a tree and indicates the presence of wood-destroying disease.
Consignment The process of turning over stock to an intermediary to be sold with the seller taking a percentage of the sales price as a fee for his services.
Construction A grade of lumber, characterized by good appearance, strength, serviceability and the absence of serious defects.
Container A box in which lumber is packed for shipment, permitting transfer from one shipping mode to another without repacking. Ocean-going containers are up to 40 feet in length.
Continuous Lumber Tester (CLT) A brand of stress-rating machine. The CLT tests individual pieces in a production line by measuring the force required to obtain a specified deflection. It codes each piece to indicate modulus of elasticity, a factor in assigning strength values to lumber.
Contracts Business Long-term buying arrangements between suppliers and buyers, usually involving regular shipments of certain items at agreed upon intervals. Can be subject to market report, or negotiated beforehand.
Controlling Kiln Sample One of the wettest samples used to determine the progress of drying in a kiln.
Cooling Shed A place where lumber is stored after kiln drying to allow it to cool before further processing.
Cork The layer of dead cells on the outside of a stem or root that protects the inner, living cells against damage.
Corner Knot One located at the intersection of two faces.,
Cost, Insurance, & Freight (CIF) A term used in waterborne shipments to indicate that the price quoted includes all charges from the point of origin to the port of destination, including the original cost of the goods.
Count The number of pieces or units of specific items in a shipment.
Countervailing Duty A fee levied on imports to offset a subsidy in the exporting country.
Credit Risk Insurance In the export trade, insurance designed to cover risks of the nonpayment of delivered goods.
Cross Grain An area in a piece of lumber in which the grain of the wood is distorted so that it runs across the piece from edge to edge instead of along the length of the piece.
Cross Tie A cross member, usually of wood, used to support railroad rails in a roadbed.
Crosscut To cut with a saw across the grain. Also, a saw used for this purpose.
Crow Foot A type of figured grain. Checks or cracks extending from the center of a log. A mark or brand to identify logs.
Cruise To estimate the volume and quality of a timber stand by visual examination of test plots or strips in the stand.
Cubic Foot Log Scale The standard tree and log measurement used by many forest products companies in the Pacific Northwest.
Cubic Meter Log Scale The metric standard measure of log volume for most of the world.
Cubic Recovery A measure of the actual cubic volume of lumber recovered from the original net cubic log scale volume.
Cull A tree or log that is less than one third useable for lumber because of excessive decay or other defects.
Cup Shake A separation between the annual rings of a log, caused by a lack of nutrients, insect damage, wind, shock or faulty seasoning.
Curl A spiral or curved marking in wood grain.
Curly Grain An ornamental grain pattern in Wood.
Curved Sawing A carriage system or resaw that feeds that log or cant through the saw in a curve parallel to the edges of the log or cant.
Custom Milling The surfacing or remanufacturing of lumber on a contract basis and to order. The lumber usually belongs to the person ordering the milling, with the mill receiving a fee for its services.
Cut Alive To saw logs on a headrig without turning them, as in a Scragg mill.
Cut Stock Small pieces of surfaced, partially worked, or rough lumber in specified sizes suitable for further manufacture into specific products.
Cutoff Saw A large saw, usually circular, used to trim logs to specific lengths before they enter a manufacturing plant.
Cutting Circle The circle described by the outer rim or extremity of the teeth in the circular saw.
Cyclone Part of a pneumatic conveyor system that transports various mill wastes including sander dust planer shavings, chips, etc. to a central collection point.
D Index
DBH Diameter at breast height.
Dead Knot A loose knot; one not firmly joined to the surrounding wood. A decayed knot.
Dead Pack A unit of lumber banded without stickers.
Dead Rolls Rollers that are not power driven, as opposed to live rolls.
Debarker Any of various machines used to remove bark from logs prior to processing them into lumber, panels, or pulp.
Debarking Chain The infeed chain that moves the log through the debarker.
Decay Disintegration of wood substance due to action of wood-destroying fungi. Also know as dote, or rot. Advanced decay, Incipient decay, an early stage of decay; pocket rot, decay which appears as an area of soft rot, water soak or stain, water soak in heartwood.
Deck The surface of a floor or roof before finishing material are applied. The boards or panels making up the top and bottom surfaces of a pallet.
Decorative Grades Grades for lumber or panels that are based on the appearance qualities of the product, rather than the structural qualities.
Defect Any naturally occurring imperfection, or condition of wood, including decay, shake checking, pitch seams.
Degrades Pieces of lumber that on reinspection prove to be of lower quality than the grade originally assigned to them.
Dehumidification Drying An alternative kiln drying process in which moisture removed from lumber is condensed, and the circulation air is reheated rather than vented from the kiln.
Delimber A machine that strips limbs from a felled tree prior to its being bucked into logs. Usually one of the steps in processing timber using a feller-bunchermachine.
Delivered Price The price of an item with the freight to destination included.
Demurrage A charge assessed by a carrier for holding a rail-freight car, truck, or ship,. In the forest products trade, demurrage commonly refers to the charges assessed to a wholesaler who is unable to sell a transit car and must hold it temporarily at a diversion point.
Dense A reference to the specific gravity of wood. Lumber classified as "dense" has six or more annual rings per inch, plus one-third or more summerwood, measured at either end.
Design Value a measurement of strength in lumber, involving the basic properties of wood. These are; fiber stress in bending. Tension parallel to grain, horizontal shear, compression perpendicular to grain, and modulus of elasticity.
Dia Diameter.
Diagonal Grain A deviation of the grain from a line parallel to the edges, which results from sawing a piece of lumber at an angle other than parallel with the bark.
Diameter Class Tree diameters are measured in a sample survey of a stand of trees. These diameters are then grouped in size categories, usually by 2- inch increments, with the minimum base diameter as the starting point.
Diameter Inside Bark (DIB) A measurement of wood volume in a standing tree or log in which the actual or estimated thickness of the bark is discounted.
DIB Diameter inside bark.
Diffusion Treatment A non-pressure process for treating wood in which green or wet wood is put into contact with a waterborne preservative. The preservative will diffuse out of the water of the treating solution and into the wood
Dim Dimension.
Dimension Lumber that is from two inches up to, but not including, five inches thick, and that is two or more inches in width. Dimension also is classified as framing, joists, planks, rafters, etc.
Dimensional Stability The ability of a material to maintain its original dimensions under variations of temperature, moisture, and physical stress.
Dip Tank A vessel holding wood preservative, into which wood is briefly dipped to provide a superficial treatment. Such dipping provides only very limited protection for wood used in ground contact, but is often sufficient in applications where the wood will be painted or not exposed to the ground or severe moisture.
Dip Treatment A wood preservative process involving absorption of preservative through submersion.
Directional Felling A system of felling trees in a predetermined pattern, due to terrain considerations or to reduce breakage. Such a system often necessitates that trees be jacked or pulled to overcome natural lean.
Dirty Chips Wood chips contaminated with dirt or char.
Discoloration A change in the color of a piece of lumber that affects only its appearance.
Distribution Center A facility where wood products are received, stored, and distributed to retailers, usually in truck-load quantities. Essentially the same as a distribution yard, excepts that "centers" usually have the capacity for indoor storage.
Distribution Yard A lumber yard operated by a wholesaler in which lumber is received from producers and distributed in smaller amounts to retail customers over a relatively large area.
Dog a Device designed to bite into and hold something securely, such as a log on a mill carriage.
Dog Board When sawing lumber on a headrig, the last board in a log to which the carriage dogs are attached.
Dog Ear To remove the corners at one end of a fence board, for decorative effect.
Do-It-Yourselfer (DIY) a person usually a homeowner, who does his own home construction and repair projects.
Door Head The top rail in a door frame. A horizontal projection or decorative feature over a door.
Door Stock Lumber selected for quality and cut to specified sizes for use in doors. Most often obtained from the shop, or cutting grades of Ponderosa Pine, White Fir, or Douglas Fir.
Double- Cut Saw A saw with teeth on both edges, which cuts regardless of the direction the carriage is moving.
Double-Arbor Edger An edger consisting of two circular saws, one working from above and the other from below. Since this reduces the depth of cut for each saw, thinner blades may be used.
Double-End Kiln A dry kiln with doors at both ends and a track running through it, the charges are loaded through one end and unloaded through the other.
Double-end Trimmed (DET) Passed through saws to be smoothly trimmed at both ends, commonly in length increments of two feet.
Douglas Fir Bark Beetle An insect that destroys weakened Douglas Fir trees.
Dressed Size The actual width and thickness of lumber after planing.
Drip Pad A platform that units of treated lumber are placed on to capture the drippage of chemicals not absorbed by the wood. The pads are designed to prevent seepage of treatment chemicals into the ground.
Dropped Shipment A trucking term for shipments that are "dropped" en route to the final destination for further processing.
Drum Chipper A type of chipper used especially to convert lily pads and trim ends to pulp chips.
Dry Seasoned, usually to a moisture content of less than 1%.
Dry Bulb A sensing device that indicates the temperature of the air, used in kiln drying.
Dry Chain A moving chain or conveyor, where rough, kiln dried lumber was graded before being run through the planer.
Dry Kiln A chamber in which wood products are seasoned by applying heat and withdrawing moist air.
Dry Rot A type of decay in seasoned wood, caused by fungi.
Drying Defects Defects resulting from kiln drying lumber, including casehardening and checking.
Drying Rate The time it takes to dry lumber to a certain moisture content.
Drying Shed A building to which green or treated lumber is placed for air drying.
Drying Stresses Stresses in lumber caused by variations in the shrinkage or expansion of different wood layers, due to differences in moisture content.
Dunnage Low grade lumber used to separate and bind ship cargoes.
Duty A charge assessed by governments on imports, usually expressed as a percentage of the landed cost. Duties are intended to protect domestic industries, or to meet other national goals. Such as conserving foreign exchange.
E Index
E Value The measure of the modulus of elasticity in a piece of lumber, and the design value used in machine stress-rated lumber.
Eased Edge A part of the planing or surfacing operation in which the edges of dimension and many other products are slightly rounded to reduce splintering.
Eastside Measurement rule Established by scaling bureaus. The rule establishes a maximum scaling length of 20 feet.
Economy The lowest recognized grade in lumber.
Edge The narrow faces of rectangular-shaped lumber
Edge Grain Vertical grain; wood cut so that the wide surfaces are approximately at right angles to the growth rings.
Edger Sawmill machinery used to saw cants after they come off the hear rig, squaring the edges and ripping the cants into lumber.
Edger Optimizer A computerized laser system that shows the optimal cut for edging a cant.
Edgerman The sawmill worker who operates an edger.
Edgerpicker A mill worker who picks up waste behind the edger and sends it to a chipping machine.
Edging Waste wood produced by an edger when cutting and squaring lumber from a slab or cant.
Encased Knot One not intergrown with the annual rings of the surrounding wood.
End Branded and Waxed Lumber whose ends have been imprinted with the manufacturer's name or logo and sealed with a clear or tinted wax.
End Painting Spray-painting the ends of a unit of lumber to both prevent end checking and to serve as a means of identification.
End Sealed Lumber whose ends have been treated to prevent moisture from entering.
Endangered Species Any species in danger of extinction throughout all or significant portion of its range.
Engineered Wood Products Lumber manufactured by using adhesives to hold together oriented veneers, wafers, wood fibers, or dimension lumber.
Environmental Protection Agency Government Agency charged with enforcing many of the environmental standards.
Equalizing A final stage in the kiln-drying process, designed to bring all the pieces in the charge to the same moisture content.
Equilibrium Moisture Content The point at which wood is stable and in equilibrium with the humidity of its surroundings, it is neither taking on or giving up moisture.
Estimated Weight An estimate of the weight of a thousand board feet of a specific forest products item. Used in estimating the delivered cost of rail shipments.
Expansion Coefficient An expression of the changes in thickness and width of a wood product as its moisture content increases or decreases. Higher moisture content, until it reaches equilibrium, usually means an increase in dimensions.
Export Clear A high grade of lumber produced for shipment to overseas markets. Most export clears are shipped unsurfaced, unseasoned, and full sawn, and graded according to rules by the Inspection Bureau.
Export Trading Company A company that arranges for buying or selling of commodities between third parties.
Exporter A trader who sells a product to a foreign country. He may be the manufacturer, or buy it from the manufacturer.
Extreme Fiber in Bending A measurement of the stress applied to the fibers of a piece of lumber by a load or weight.
F Index
F Rating The measurement of stress in a piece of lumber. Generally the higher the f rating the stronger the piece of lumber.
Face The face of a piece of lumber or plywood is that side showing the better quality or appearance.
Face Edge The best of the two narrow faces on a rectangular piece of lumber.
Face Measure Surface measure, the measurement of the area of a board or panel. Not the same as board measure.
Face Side The better wide side of a rectangular piece of lumber.
Factory Lumber A broad category of lumber that includes stock of various grades and species intended for remanufacturing into items.
Factory Select A grade of shop lumber containing 70% or more of #1 Door Cuttings.
Falldown Those lumber items of a lesser grade or quality that are produced as an adjunct to the processing of higher quality stock.
False Ring An extra 'annual' ring formed during a year's growth, often due to abnormal weather conditions.
Feed Rate The rate at which material can be fed to a machine such as an edger or planer without causing a jam.
Feedworks the collective equipment that feeds work into a machine, such as an edger.
Felling Break A break, or fracture in a log or in a piece of lumber caused by the impact of the tree hitting the ground when it was felled.
Felling Shake A lengthwise separation of the grain of a tree between growth rings, caused by the impact of felling it.
Fiber Saturation The point at which the cell walls of wood are saturated with water but the spaces between the cell walls contain no moisture.
Field Inspection The reinspection of lumber "in the field" usually at the buyer's location. This is called for because the buyer feels he received inferior product.
Filer The person in a mill who keeps the saws sharp.
Final Moisture Content The average moisture content of lumber at the end of the drying process.
Fines Fine milled chips used in the production of particleboard. Fines are larger than sander dust. Used to make particle board.
Fingerjoint A method of joining two pieces of lumber end-to-end by sawing into the end of each piece a set of projecting fingers that interlock. Form a strong clue point.
Finish A high quality piece of lumber graded for appearance. Used for cabinet work.
Finished Size The net dimensions of a piece of lumber after surfacing.
Fire Scar A burned or charred area on a tree or log, often an entry point for decay-causing organisms.
Fire Watch A watchman who stays at the logging site after the day's work is completed to watch for fire.
Firm Red Heart A stage of incipient decay characterized by a reddish color in the heartwood which does not make the wood unfit for the majority of yard purposes.
First in, first Out A type of accounting for inventory in which items purchased first are assumed to the first to be sold.
Fixed Arbor Gang rip Saw A rip saw having the saws set in a fixed position.
Fixed Costs Costs that do not change with a change in the volume of output or the rate of operation.
Fixed Knot One that retains its place in dry lumber under ordinary conditions but is movable under pressure, though not easily pushed out.
Flame Grain A grain figure produced on flat-cut boards or rotary-cut veneer.
Flat Grain Annual rings that form an angle of less than 45 degrees with the surface of a piece of lumber.
Flitch A log sawn on two or more sides from which veneer is sliced.
Floor Price A price se by a manufacturer, below which he refuses to sell.
Flooring A tongued and grooved piece of lumber used in constructing a floor. Than basic size of flooring is 1x 4 inches.
FOB Free on board.
FOHC Free of heart center.
Foreign Agricultural Service An agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture which stations attaches overseas to promote consumption of U.S. agricultural products.
Forest Plan A summary of the analysis of the management situation for each national forest, describing multiple use goals and objectives and including a description of the desired future condition of the forest.
Forklift A piece of mechanized equipment used to move units of lumber. Steel blades slip under the load, which is then lifted hydraulically, moved to the desired location, and lowered into place.
Formula Tally The normal assortment of lengths of lumber provided in a load by a certain producer. Such tallies vary from mill to mill, with some mills providing more of certain lengths, such as shorts, than others.
Free on Board A reference to the point to which the seller will deliver goods without charge to the buyer. Additional freight or other charges connected with transporting or handling the product become the responsibility of the buyer.
Free Water Water that is held in the capillary structure of wood.
Freight Rate The charge assessed by a freight carrier for moving a commodity from one point to another. Rates vary by distance and the type of commodity and methods of calculating rates differ among rail, track, and ship carriers.
Frost Cracks Splits or cracks in the trunk of a tree, caused by extreme cold, such cracks are defects in lumber manufactured from such timber.
FSC Forest Stewardship Council.
Full Sawn A grading term used to describe rough lumber that has been cut to full nominal size. Tolerances above the nominal size are allowed in full-sawn lumber, but there is no tolerance for pieces undersize at the time of manufacture.
Furniture Grade Lumber of a quality and size suitable for the manufacture of furniture.
Fuzzy Grain In surfacing lumber, a condition of the board surface in which fibers are not completely severed in the surfacing process and are still partially attached to the surface, giving it a fuzzy appearance.
G Index
Gang Edger An edger with multiple saws.
Gang Rip To cut a cant into uniform smaller members by passing it lengthwise through a gang saw.
Glue Laminated A process in which individual pieces of lumber or veneer are bonded together with an adhesive to make a single piece, with the grain of each piece running parallel to the grain of each of the other pieces.
Grade Recovery The rate at which various qualities, or grades, are obtained in the sawing of a log.
Grade Sawing The practice of turning a log on the carriage in order to obtain the highest values or grades
Grade Stamp A rubber stamp, issued by a grading agency or association to a client mill and used to indicate the grade of a particular piece of lumber or panel, along with other information.
Grademark A stamp or symbol indicating the grade, quality and intended use of a piece of lumber, or other wood product. It bears an official stamp, accompanied by a certificate attesting to the grade.
Grader A worker who examines lumber, or other wood products and assigns them a grade according to an established set of rules.
Grading Rules A set of criteria by which to judge various pieces of lumber or panels in terms of strength, appearance, and suitability for various uses. Regional grading agencies draw up rules for grading based on the voluntary product standards issued by the US Bureau of Standards.
Grain A general term referring to the arrangement, appearance and direction of wood fibers.
Graveyard Shift A work shift that starts around midnight and ends in the early morning.
Green Unseasoned, not dry. Lumber with a moisture content of 19% or more.
Greenchain A moving chain or belt on which lumber is transported from saws in a mill. The lumber is pulled from the chain by workers and stacked according to size, length, species, and other criteria.
Gross Scale The measurement of the yield of a log, without allowance for loss due to various defects.
Gross Ton A long ton, 2,240 pounds.
Grouse Ladder A logger's term for a mature conifer that has grown in a more or less open area and has retained its limbs along the full length of the tree.
Growth Ring the amount of growth in a single year; an annual ring.
Gum Pocket An opening between growth rings which contains or has contained resin or bark, or both.
Gumming The process of shaping the gullets of a circular saw with a special tool designed for that purpose.
H Index
Hammer Mark A mark on a log or timber that identifies the owner; a brand.
Handrail A guide for the hand along a staircase.
Hard Hat A rigid protective helmet, usually of metal or plastic, worn by workers in wood products.
Hardness The property of wood indicated by its resistance to cutting, scratching, denting, pressure, or wear.
Hardwood A general term referring to any of a variety of broad leaved, deciduous trees, and the wood from those trees. The term has nothing to do with the actual hardness of the wood; some hardwoods are softer than certain softwood species.
Head Jamb The top member of a door or window frame.
Head Rig The principal saw in a sawmill, on which logs are first cut into cants before being sent on to other saws for further processing.
Head Saw The principal break-down saw in a sawmill; part of the head rig.
Head Sawyer One who operates the headrig, or principal saw, in a sawmill.
Heart Center The pith or center of a log.
Heart Check Seasoning checks in the central core of a timber.
Heartwood That portion of the tree contained within the sapwood; this term is sometimes used to mean the pith. The heartwood is dormant and unnecessary for the tree's continued life.
Heavy Shop A thicker-than-standard piece of shop grade lumber.
Hem-Fir An unofficial designation developed to differentiate between Western Hemlock and the True Firs in the Hem-Fir group. Hem-Fir refers to stock produced in Northern California and the Inland West.
High Grading In logging, going through an area and taking out only the best quality logs. Also applicable to any process in which only the "cream" is taken.
High-Strain Bandsaw A thin-kerf bandsaw operated at high tension to saw accurately with little waste.
High-Temperature Kiln A dry kiln operated at a dry-bulb temperature above 212 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hit and Miss A series of surfaced areas with skips not over 1/16- inch scant between them.
Hogged Fuel Fuel made by grinding wastewood in a hog. Used to fire boilers or furnaces often at the mill or plant at which the fuel was processed.
Hollow Knot A sound knot containing a hole greater and 1/4-inch in diameter. The through opening of the hole is limited to the size of other permitted holes.
Honeycomb The type of decay indicated by large pits in the wood.
Hooter A logger's term for a mature conifer that has grown in a more-or-less open area and has retained its limbs along the full length of the tree.
Horizontal Resaw A single or multiple bandsaw, mounted horizontally and used to break down slabs or cants from a headrig.
Horizontal Shear A measurement of the resistance to shearing along the longitudinal axis of a piece of lumber.
Horsepower A measure of power defined as that needed to raise 550 pounds one foot in one second.
Hot Deck The supply of logs currently being used in a sawmill. A pile of logs from which logs are hauled to the mill as soon as they are yarded to the landing.
Humboldt Undercut An undercut chunk taken out of the stump side in power saw felling to provide a log with an end cut straight across.
Husk On a circular saw headrig, that part of the system including the arbor, saw, saw guide, and splitter.
I Index
Incense Cedar The species is aromatic and is extremely durable when seasoned. Used in making pencils
Initial Moisture Content The moisture content of wood at the start of the drying process.
Inserted Tooth Saw A saw to which specially hardened teeth have been attached.
Intergown Knot One whose annual rings are partially or completely intergrown on one or more faces with the annual rings of the surrounding wood.
Interlocked Grain A condition in lumber in which fibers are inclined in one direction in a number of annual rings, then gradually reverse and are inclined in an opposite direction in succeeding growth rings.
Internode The length of a stem between branches or leaf attachments.
Irrevocable Letter of Credit A letter of credit in which the specified payment is quaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee.
J Index
Jackstraw A log deck in which logs have been piled without order. A pile of any thing in which individual items are left as they fell.
Jags Odds and ends left in an inventory, quantities too small to make up a unit.
Jamb Stock Material from which jambs are manufactured, for use at the sides of a doorway or window.
JAS Japanese Agricultural Standard.
J-Grade Stock that has been segregated from regular production to meet the specifications of the Japanese market for 2-inch dimension.
Jib Crane A crane which has a derrick from which the load is suspended.
Journeyman A person who has served an apprenticeship and has been certified to perform a particular trade.
Jump Saw A circular cross-cut saw that can be raised and lowered.
Juvenile Wood The initial wood formed adjacent to the pith, often characterized by lower specific gravity, lower strength, higher longitudinal shrinkage, and different microstructure than mature wood.
K Index
Kerf The width of a saw cut. It is waste and the residue can be used as fuel or for other purposes.
Kick Back The reaction of a tree which when felled, kicks back toward the faller.
Kiln Charge One full load for a kiln; the amount of lumber processed in a kiln at any one time.
Kiln Dried Lumber that has been seasoned in a kiln to a predetermined moisture content.
Kiln Schedule A sequence of temperatures used to kiln-dry lumber with a minimum of defects.
Kiln Stick A 1x 2 or 2 x 4 piece used between layers of wood to improve air circulation within the pile.
Kiln Truck A wheeled framework designed to hold a load of lumber for drying in a kiln. Used in kilns with tracks.
Kiln Wet Lumber that has been removed from the kiln before it has dried to the required moisture content.
Knife Marks Imprints or markings of machine knives on the surface of dressed lumber or on veneer, usually due to dull or chipped knives. Perfectly smooth to the touch, but can be seen from a favorable angle.
Knot A branch or limb embedded in a tree and cut through in the process of manufacturing. Knots are classified according to size, quality and occurrence.
Knot Quality In addition to size, knots are classified according to quality. Unsound, Encased, Intergrown Loose, Fixed, Pith, Sound, Star-checked, Tight, Firm, Watertight.
L Index
Laminated Veneer Lumber Structural wood members constructed of veneers laminated to make a "flitch" from which pieces of specific sizes can be trimmed.
Last in, First Out A method of accounting for inventory in which is assumed that goods bought last are sold first.
Lath A thin, narrow wooden strip, used as a backing for wall plaster or other materials, or as a fencing material.
Less 1% An indication that the price shown will be discounted 1% usually for payment within a specified period.
Light Framing Lumber that is two to four inches thick, two to four inches wide, and graded Construction, Standard, or Utility. Used in a wide variety of general construction applications.
Lily Pad A round piece cut from the end of a log. Sometimes converted to chips for pulping, and sometimes sold for use as stepping stones in landscaping, or sold as fuel.
Linebar A fixed, or moveable, metal plate or fence at the edge of a roll case, against which a piece of lumber rides as it goes through a resaw or edger.
Linebar Resaw A resaw with a stationary bandsaw and a moveable linebar that is set to determine the width or thickness of the piece of lumber being resawn.
Live Knot A sound, firm knot.
Live Rolls Powered rollers used to move lumber or cants in a sawmill.
Live Sawing A method by which a log or bolt is sawn directly into boards or dimension lumber without the log being turned, or cut into cants.
Lock Nut A nut that will not work loose in use.
Lodgepole Pine This species, a principal raw material for studs, is found in a wide range in the Northwestern US and Canada
Log The harvested tree. The raw material from which lumber, plywood, and other wood products are processed.
Log Dog A projection, or stop, on an endless chain used to draw logs into a sawmill.
Log Scaling Procedure The methods used by log scalers in measuring a log on a carriage, and indicated the best opening cuts.
Log Stacker A vehicle equipped with movable jaws of any of a variety of designs, used to unload logs from logging trucks and transport them around a storage yard.
Log Turner An articulated arm used in turning logs on a carriage. The arm can be extended to roll a log from the carriage with the log then being repositioned by hydraulic bumpers.
Long Butt A chunk cut off the bottom log of a tree because of defect.
Long Log A log in the Douglas Fir region, as contrasted with the 16 to 20 feet logs of other areas.
Long-Log Scaling the scaling of logs more than 20 feet long.
Loose Knot A knot not firmly fixed or held tightly in place by growth, shape, or position.
Low Grade A general tem describing framing lumber graded as Utility and #3 or lower.
Lumber A wood product manufactured from logs by sawing, resawing and usually, planing with all four sides sawn.
Lumber Crayon A large heavy duty wax crayon used by a grader to mark lumber.
Lumber Recovery Factor (LRF) The volume of lumber recovered per cubic foot of log processed.
Lumberman A generic term describing any person involved in the manufacturing or marketing of lumber.
M Index
Machine Bite A depressed cut in the end of a piece of lumber, made by machine knives during surfacing. It is classified as follows: Very light, light, medium, heavy, very heavy.
Machine Burn Darkening or charring on a piece of lumber caused by overheating of machine knives during surfacing or moulding.
Market Logs Privately held timber, usually from non-industry or woodlot ownerships, sold on the open market.
Massed Pitch An excessive concentration of pitch.
MBF The standard abbreviation for 1,000 board feet of standing timber, logs, or lumber.
MBF Thousand board feet.
Medium Grain Lumber that exhibits an average of approximately four or more annual growth rings per inch on one end of the piece. The ring count is a measure of the strength of the piece as related to the rate of growth of the tree from which it was manufactured.
Medium Knot A knot not over 1 1/2 inches in diameter.
Med-Sort A non-grading-rule term specific to high-grade clear Douglas Fir lumber exported to the Mediterranean region, where importers traditionally have closely scrutinized density and quality.
Merchantable An export grade that describes a piece of lumber suited for general construction use; this grade is described in the R List grading and dressing rules.
Mezzanine An intermediate floor, often with a low ceiling, between the first and second stories of a building.
Mill A manufacturing plant in which logs are converted into products such as lumber or plywood.
Mill Number A number assigned to a mill by a grading agency and used to identify the mill on the grade stamp.
Mill Run The normal output of a sawmill. When stock is offered for sale as "mill run" it is understood to be the typical grade mix and tally for the mill.
Millwork Lumber that has been remanufactured into door and window parts or decorative trim. Generally made from the shop grades of Ponderosa Pine, Sugar Pine, White Fir, Douglas Fir, or Western Hemlock.
Mine timbers Timbers used to line a mine tunnel to prevent collapse.
Mismanufacture A general term that includes all blemishes or defects that may occur in manufacturing a wood product, such as torn grain, skip surfacing, chipped grain, and others.
Mistrim A piece inaccurately trimmed to length.
Mixed Grain Any combination of edge grain and flat grain.
MMBF One million board feet.
Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) A measurement of stiffness in a wood product, found by determining the relationship between the amount a piece deflects and the load causing the deflection.
Modulus of Rupture (MOR) A measurement of the load required to break a wood product.
Moisture Content The weight of the water in wood, expressed as the percentage of the weight of the oven-dry-wood.
Moulding&Better (Mldg&BTR) A grade combination purchased by moulding producers. It consists of the grades Moulding Stock, D Select, and C&Better Select in combination.
Multiple Bandsaw A headrig or resaw consisting of two or more bandsaws that cut simultaneously on the same log or cant.
N Index
N List A set of export clear grading rules published by the Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau. The N List is more restrictive than the R List.
Narrows The narrow widths of dimension or boards, usually 2x4, 2x6, and sometimes 2x8.
National Grading Rule (NGR) The general rule covering grade strength ratios, nomenclature, and descriptions of grades for softwood dimension lumber conforming to the American Softwood Lumber Standard.
Net Measure The content of lumber, in board feet, when calculated from measurements of actual dimensions, including tongue or lap.
Net Scale The measurement of a yield of a log after deduction for defects.
Nominal Size The size designation for most lumber, plywood and other panel products used for convenience. In lumber, the nominal size usually is greater than the actual dimension.
O Index
Occasional Pieces A term generally understood to mean not more than 10% of the total pieces in a quantity of wood products.
Ocean Bill of Lading A bill of lading indicating that the exporter consigns a shipment to an international carrier for transport to a specified foreign market.
Off Grade A wood product that fails to meet the requirements of a particular grade.
On Grade A wood product that meets the requirements of a particular grade.
On the Ground Lumber that has accumulated in a producing mill's inventory, often it is offered for sale at a reduced price.
Open Pitch Pocket An accumulation of resin in wood that has been exposed by manufacture.
Operator The owner or contractor of a logging operation. The actual operator of a piece of equipment.
Or Longer A designation, usually abbreviated "OrLgr," that indicates that lengths longer than those specified than those specified may be supplied, usually understood not to exceed 24-foot pieces.
Or Wider A designation, usually abbreviated "Or Wider," that indicates pieces wider than those specified may be supplied.
Order File A measure of the sales made by a producer, usually expressed in terms of the time it will take him to produce and ship an order, such as in a "two week order file."
Orderchaser The person, such as an assistant shipping clerk or checker, who keeps track of shipments leaving a mill.
Out-of-Square Not square, having edges that are not exactly parallel.
Ovendry Ton A quantity of wood pulp, sawdust, or other wood residue that weighs 2,000 lbs, at zero percent moisture content.
Overrun The volume of lumber actually obtained from a log in excess of the estimated volume of the log, based on log scale.
Overs In particleboard and fiberboard production, particles that are too large for the particular production process. They are called out from the classifier and rerouted to be reduced to usable size.
Oversold A condition occurring when a seller of forest products finds himself with a longer order file than he wants and/or can handle in a timely manner. When this occurs, the seller usually goes off the market by refusing to take additional orders until his order file is reduced.
Oxidation Stain A stain that occurs when a mineral in the wood combines with oxygen.
P Index
Pacific Yew This species, generally small in size, was not t commercially important tree until scientists discovered that its bark contained taxol, a drug used in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Packing List In the export trade, a list showing the number and kinds of items being shipped, as well as other information needed for transportation purposes.
Paint Grade A description of a wood product that is more suitable for painting than for a clear finish.
Pallet Grade Lower-grade lumber used for making pallets.
Paper Wrap A method of packaging wood products for shipment on a truck or railroad flat car, with the paper designed to protect the product from dirt and the elements.
Partially Air Dried (PAD) Seasoned to some extent by exposure to the atmosphere, without artificial heat, but still considered green or unseasoned.
Peavey A tool used in turning logs, it consists of a lever and a moveable, curved hook.
Peeler A log from which veneer is peeled on a lathe, for the production of plywood. A peeler-grade log most frequently is from an old-growth tree, with a high proportion of clear wood.
Pencil End Trimmed Lumber that is not double end trimmed or precision end trimmed to length, but rather has been marked by a pencil or crayon to the desired length and tallied accordingly. Usually shop lumber.
Per Diem Charge The amount paid by one carrier to another for each day the payee's equipment is on the payor's line.
Per Thousand Short for per thousand board feet or per thousand square feet.
Performance Standard A standard for products designed to meet specific end-use applications. A performance standard emphasizes end-use criteria rather than materials and methods used in manufacture.
Pickeroon A short, sharp tool used to move logs or timbers.
Piece Tally A description of a parcel of wood products that lists contents by widths and lengths.
Pike Pole A long pole with a spear-type point and a hook on one end. It is used to move logs around in a mill pond.
Pin Hole A small, round hole made by a pin-hole borer.
Pin Knot a knot with a diameter no larger than 1/2 inch.
Pitch Pocket An opening between growth rings which usually contains or has contained resin, or bark, or both. Classified for grading purposes as very small, small, medium, large, closed, open, or through.
Pitch Ring Pitch accumulated around the annual growth ring of a tree.
Pith The small, soft core in the structural center of a log.
Pith Knot An otherwise-sound knot that contains a pith hole not over 1/4 inch in diameter.
Planer A machine used to surface rough lumber.
Planer Chain The moving conveyor belt upon which lumber is moved from the planer to various stacks, according to length, grade, etc.
Planer Heads Sets of cutting knives mounted on cylindrical heads which revolve at high speed to dress lumber fed through them. Top and bottom heads surface or pattern the two faces, while side heads dress or pattern the two edges or sides.
Planer Knife One of the sharp blades used in planer head.
Planer Split A split or check in a board, caused by the flattening of a cupped board by the feed rolls of a planer.
Planer Trim Short pieces trimmed off the ends of planed lumber to attain specific lengths, also called Planer ends.
Planing Allowance The allowance required in setting saw sizes to allow a planer to smooth the lumber, the amount removed by a planer.
Planing Mill An installation where lumber is surfaced. Also refers to mills where lumber is remanufactured to a customer's specifications.
PLIB Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau.
Plumb Bob The metal weight on a plumb line.
Ponderosa Pine Is found in wide range from British Columbia to Mexico, and from the Pacific Coast to the Dakotas. The wood is widely used in general construction, most often as boards, but is more valued for its uses in millwork and in cuttings for remanufacture.
Pony Rig A smaller version of a piece of manufacturing equipment. A sawmill may use a headrig for large logs and a smaller pony rig for small logs. A pony resaw may be operated in conjunction with a main resaw to handle smaller cants.
Precision End Trimmed Lumber trimmed square and smooth on both ends to a uniform length, with a manufacturing tolerance of 1/16 inch over or under length in a maximum of 20% of the pieces.
Premium Grade A general term describing the quality of one item as superior to another.
Price of Time of Shipment (PTS/PATS) A method of pricing in which a buyer and a seller agree that the price of a particular item will be that price prevailing when the item is actually shipped.
Product Developing The full range of grades that develop in the manufacture of a particular item.
Profiler A machine used to cut or saw lumber to a particular pattern.
Profiler A machine used to cut or saw lumber to a particular pattern.
Psychrometer An instrument for measuring water vapor in the atmosphere, using both wet, and dry bulb thermometers. A wet-bulb thermometer is kept moistened and is cooled by evaporation, giving a slightly lower reading than the dry bulb thermometer.
Puller A worker on a sorting chain who pulls lumber from the chain and stacks it according to width, length, and grade, or some combination of these factors.
Pull-Out Any one of several selector high grades removed, or pulled out, from a quantity of lumber before that lumber is marketed as common grades.
Punky Rotten or inferior wood.
Q Index
R Index
R List A set of grading rules published by the Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau that describes the export grades of Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock, Sitka Spruce, and Western Red Cedar Lumber.
Radial Shake Shake starting at the circumference of a log and crossing the growth rings.
Rainwet Lumber that has excess moisture content because of exposure to rain after it was dried.
Raised Grain A roughened condition on the surface of dressed lumber in which the hard summerwood is raised above the softer springwood but not torn loose from it.
Random Grain A combination of vertical and flat grain.
Random Lengths (RL) Lumber of various lengths, usually in even two-foot increments. Lumber offered as random-length will contain a variety of lengths which can very greatly between manufacturers and species.
Random Width (RW) Wood products of various widths. Lumber, usually for factory or industrial uses, that is sold in random widths.
Random Width, Random Length (RWRL) A designation that indicates that lumber so labeled contains an assortment of widths and lengths. Although all types of lumber may be packaged and sold in this manner, it is more common in the marketing of boards than in dimension or other lumber items. It is particularly common in the marketing of Idaho White Pine, and shop of various species.
Rate Of Growth The rate at which a tree lays on wood, measured in the number of annual growth rings per inch.
Raw Material Primarily logs from which wood products are manufactured. Also used to refer to veneer, sawdust, shavings, or chips used in making products.
Red Knot A knot resulting when a live branch is cut through, It is intergrown with the surrounding wood.
Red Tag The stoppage of construction at a jobsite by a building inspector because a material or procedure fails to meet building code standards or regulations.
Redwood Sequoia sempervirens. This species is found only in limited areas of Northern California and Southern Oregon. It is resistant to decay and is used for many of the same purposes as Cedar, especially siding and paneling. Another species of Redwood, Sequoia gigantes, grows in the Sierra Mountains of Central California.
Regrade To check the quality of a load of wood products a second time, changing grade designations as necessary.
Reject A piece of lumber or a panel that fails to meet a certain grade requirement.
Relative Humidity The amount of water vapor in the air as a percentage of the maximum amount the air could hold at a given temperature.
Reload A warehouse or distribution facility located relatively near producing regions. A reload operation purchases inventory in quantity, blends various items to customers' specifications and reships them as mixed cars.
Reman An abbreviation for remanufacture or remanufacturing. A process of converting a common product to a more specialized or higher grade product by further manufacturing.
Resaw To saw a piece of lumber along its horizontal axis. A bandsaw that performs such an operation.
Resawn Lumber Lumber that has been sawn on a horizontal axis to produce two thinner pieces.
Retailer One who sells directly to the ultimate user of a product, such as a building contractor, remodeler, etc. The last link in the distribution chain.
Rift Grain A grain pattern resulting from rift cutting or slicing/sawing a log at right angles to the radius of the log.
Rift-Cut Veneer Veneer that has been sliced or sawn at an angle of 45 degrees to the annual rings.
Rim Speed The rate at which the teeth of a circular saw revolve.
Ring A growth ring
Ring Debarker A machine consisting of a stationery outer ring and a revolving inner ring which holds curved cutting tools to remove bark from logs.
Ring Shake Cup shake between adjacent growth rings.
Ripped Lumber Lumber that has been sawn and resawn lengthwise to reduce its width, or to make two or more narrow pieces from a single wide piece.
RL Random length.
Roller Check Cracks in wood caused by a piece of cupped lumber being flattened between machine rollers.
Rosser Head Debarker A type of mechanical debarker which uses a cutting tool on a pivoting arm to remove bark from a log being rotated.
Rough Dry Lumber that has been seasoned but not dressed.
Rough Lumber Lumber which has not been dressed or surfaced but has been sawn, edged, and trimmed.
Round Knot One produced when a limb is cut at approximately a right angle to its long access.
Rule A regulation issued by organizations governing the grading or measurement of wood products.
Running Foot A linear foot; a measurement of the actual length of a piece of lumber, without regard to the thickness or width of the piece.
RW Random width. Redwood.
RW&L Random width and length.
S Index
S1S1E Surfaced one side and one edge.
S1S2E Surfaced one side and two edges.
S2E Surfaced two edges.
S2S Surfaced tow sides.
S2S&CM Surfaced two sides and center matched.
S2s1E Surfaced two sides and one edge.
S4S Surfaced four sides
Sale A unit of timber offered for sale as a separate entity, usually designated by a particular name, such as "Cougar Ridge Sale," or "Salt Creek Salvage Sale." A transaction between a buyer and seller.
Sap Restriction Limits to the amount of sapwood permitted in a piece of lumber.
Sap Stain Treatment A treatment used on unseasoned lumber to reduce discoloration of the wood from natural processes.
Sapwood The outer layers of growth, between the bark and the heartwood, that contain the sap.
Saturation Point The stage at which the cell walls are saturated with water, but the cell cavities are free of water. This occurs at about a 30% moisture content, based on the ovendry weight.
Saw Arbor The shaft and bearings that hold a power-driven saw.
Saw Bar The steel frame around which the chain runs on a chain saw.
Saw Collar A device fastened to the outside of a saw blade to hold it on the arbor.
Saw Doctor The mechanic who keeps the saws in condition; a saw filer.
Saw Fitter Same as Saw Filer.
Saw Guide That part of a bandsaw that keeps the saw cutting in a straight line.
Saw Oil A lubricant and solvent, such as kerosene or turpentine, used on a saw when felling or bucking trees. The saw oil dissolves sap, which turns sticky when exposed to air.
Sawdust Small particles of wood removed by the saw in cutting.
Sawing Variation The variation in thickness of a piece of wood due to lateral movement of a saw.
Sawmill A manufacturing plant in which logs are converted to lumber by running them through a series of saws.
Saws A term for toothed steel devices used to cut wood. These include: Band, Chain, Circular, Drag, Gang, Rock, Sash, Slashers, Swing, and Twin.
Sawtimber Logs of sufficient size and quality as to be suitable for conversion to lumber or other products.
Sawyer A worker in a sawmill who operates the head rig, or main saw, making the initial cuts on a log.
Scaler One who determines the net yield of logs by measuring them and applying one of a variety of formulas, or log rules.
Scaler's Stick The measuring device used by a log scaler to help estimate the board-foot volume of a log.
Scales A roadside station where trucks are weighed.
Scaling Bureau An agency or company that provides log scaling services. The scaler works for the scaling bureau rather than for either the buyer or seller of the logs.
Scant Less than standard or required size
Scribner A widely used log scale rule, originally developed in 1846. It is designed to measure the actual net yield of a log, in board feet, and is one of a number of diagram rules.
Seasoned Not green' having a moisture content of 19% or less.
Seasoning The process of evaporation and extraction of moisture from green or partially dried wood.
Seasoning Checks Small splits, or checks, that occur in wood grain if moisture is withdrawn too rapidly.
Segment A fixed length log (ie; 16-feet) bucked (sawn) from a full length tree (ie; 47-feet long)
Seismic Design Construction designed to withstand earthquake force.
Select Merchantable A grade of boards intended for use where knotty type lumber of fine appearance is required.
Select Structural The highest grade of structural Joists and Planks. This grade is applied to lumber of high quality in terms of appearance, strength, and stiffness.
Set-Up Man One who sets knives and machines for surfacing lumber. Also called a planerman, or knifegrinder.
Setworks The portion of the headrig carriage that precisely positions the log or cant to be sawn.
Sharp Chain A feed system in a sawmill used to feed smaller logs or cants into a series of saw for breakdown.
Shim A long, narrow repair of wood or suitable synthetic not more that 3/16 inch wide, used in replacing defects in plywood. A piece of shingle or other small piece used as a wedge in construction.
Shipper's Export Declaration A form required by the US Treasury Department for all shippers. It contains the value, weight, destination, and other particulars about the shipment.
Shop Lumber that is graded for the number and sizes of cuttings that can be taken from it. Used in the manufacture of other products such as door and window parts.
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Shop Outs Shop-type lumber that falls below the official shop grades, but will yield some cuttings.
Short Ton The standard 2,000 pound ton used in the United States.
Shortage Claim A claim filed against a supplier because of a deficiency in the quantity of material received.
Shorts Short pieces of lumber. The lengths described as shorts vary widely by species, products, and regions.
Shrinkage The amount of dimensional loss of a piece of wood when it has been seasoned in some manner.
Side Cut A piece of lumber, usually a board, produced incidentally as a by-product of cutting for other products such as dimension.
Side Head The unit holding the knives that surface the edge of rough lumber as it passes through the planer.
Sight Draft An instrument of payment negotiated through banks. Negotiable documents are attached such as an order bill of lading thus ensuring payment by the consignee to the negotiating bank in exchange for the documents and prior to the delivery of the goods.
Single Arbor An edger or trim saw with one shaft containing multiple saws.
Sinker A log whose specific gravity is so high that it sinks when put into water.
Sized Green Surfaced or sawn to a specific size while still green, and subject to further shrinkage.
Skip An area on a piece of lumber that a planer fails to surface, classified for grading purposes as follows: very light skip, light skip, medium skip, and heavy skip.
Slab The exterior portion of a log removed by the saw, having one flat and one curved surface.
Sliced Veneer Veneer that is cut from a block using a knife, with the resulting slices, coming off as individual pieces rather than the one long continuous sheet that results from peeling on a lathe.
Sliver A narrow, thin piece of wood cut or broken from a larger piece, usually along the grain.
Slope of Grain The deviation of the line of fibers from a straight line parallel to the sides of a piece.
Small Log Mill A sawmill designed specifically for the processing of small-diameter logs. Rapid handling of logs throughout the mill Is usually a characteristic of a small log mill. Logs from 5 to 14 inches in diameter are generally used, but some mills can process smaller logs.
Snake A wavy saw cut due to improper tension or fitting.
Sniped Dressing The loss of wood on the face of the last few inches of a piece of lumber, usually caused by a fault in the infeed or out-feed rollers of a planer.
Softwood A general term referring to any of a variety of trees having narrow, needle-like or scale-like leaves, generally coniferous.
Solid Sawn A reference to a piece of lumber that is sawn as a single piece, as opposed to a piece that is fingerjointed.
Sort Yard An area where logs are sorted according to species, size, or quality.
Sorter A mechanical device that sorts lumber for thickness, width, or length by dropping or ejecting pieces into separate compartments.
Sound Free of decay.
Specific Gravity The ratio of the density of one substance to another when used as the standard; Hydrogen for gases, water for gravity of solids and liquids
Specifications A detailed description or listing of requirements, in the case of a buyer or mill-tailored offering, in the case of a seller.
Specified Lumber that is sold on the basis of length, rather than as a random length loading.
Spike Knot A knot produced when the limb is cut either lengthwise or diagonally.
Spiral Grain Fibers that extend spirally around, instead of vertically along, the bole of a tree.
Splinter A lengthwise separation of a piece of lumber extending from one surface through the piece to the opposite surface or to an adjoining surface. Classified for grading purposes as follows: very short split, short split, medium split, long split
Split A lengthwise separation of a piece of lumber extending from one surface through the piece to the opposite surface or to an adjoining surface.
Spruce Pine Fir (S-P-F) Canadian woods of similar characteristics that have been grouped for production and marketing. It has moderate strength, are worked easily, take paint readily, and hold nails well. They are white to pale yellow in color.
Square Edged Free of wane and without eased edges.
SSND Sap stain no defect.
Stack Lumber or panel products piled in an orderly manner.
Stain Discoloration on or in lumber, or other wood product, other than its natural color. It may be caused by fungal growth weathering, or the oxidation of metallic substances in a log.
Standard A grade of lumber suitable for general construction and characterized by generally good strength and serviceability.
Standard and Better (Std&Btr) A mix of lumber grades suitable for general construction. The "and Better" signifies that a portion of the lumber is actually of a higher grade than Standard.
Standard Surfacing The surfaced size of a piece of lumber established in grading rules. It usually is used in reference to shop lumber, which can be surfaced to a variety of thicknesses to meet specific customer needs or production requirements.
Sticker A narrow strip of wood placed at right angles between layers of lumber to facilitate air circulation in drying the lumber, either in a kiln or by air seasoning.
Sticker Placer a worker who manually places stickers between courses of lumber prior to drying.
Straddlebuggy A lumber carrier with an extremely high center that enables it to straddle a unit of lumber and move it by lifting it on arms that extend from either side.
Straight Grain A piece of wood in which the principal cells run parallel to its length.
Stress Grades Lumber grades having assigned working stress and modulus of elasticity values in accordance with accepted basic principles of strength grading, and meeting the provisions of the American Softwood Lumber Standard.
Strip Board lumber one inch in nominal thickness and less than four inches in width; frequently the product of ripping wider pieces of lumber.
Structural Graded A reference to lumber graded on the basis of characteristics that affect the structural capabilities of the piece.
Structural Light Framing (SLF) A category of dimension lumber up to four inches in width which provides higher bending strength ratios for use in engineered applications such as roof trusses. It is often referred to by its fiber strength class.
Stud A framing member, usually cut to a precise length at the mill, and designed to be used in framing building walls with little or no trimming before it is set in place.
Stud Grade A grade of framing lumber under the National Grading Rule. Lumber of this grade has strength and stiffness values that make it suitable for use as a vertical member of a wall, including use in load bearing walls.
Stump Pull Slivers of wood still attached to the stump after a tree is felled.
Sugar Pine This species, is light, smooth, and easily worked. It is widely used in millwork, pattern work, and various interior applications.
Summerwood The dense, fibrous, outer potion of each annual ring of a tree, formed late in the growing period, although not necessarily in the summer.
Surface Measure A method of measuring an area or materials that gives a measurement of area only and does not take thickness into account.
Surfaced Refers to lumber that has been dressed by a planing machine for the purpose of attaining smoothness of surface and uniformity of size. Surfacing may be done on one side or edge, or all sides.
Swamper A cleanup man around a mill or logging operation. Also, an extra man who works with a forklift, setting spacers or blocks between units when yarding or loading trucks or flat cars.
Sweep The curvature or bend in a log, pole, or piling, classified as a defect.
Swell Butted A log that has a swelled or flared butt.
Swing Saw A saw mounted on an arm and pendulum for crosscutting material.
Swing Shift A work period that starts in the late afternoon and ends late in the evening, often at midnight.
T Index
Tally A numerical breakdown of the various lengths and/or widths in a load of lumber. The price of a random-length load is generally dependent on the tally, with those loads having a high proportion of the desired lengths bringing the higher price.
Tally Stick A device used to tally shop lumber. It consists of a wooden stick with marks showing widths multiplied by lengths.
Tallyman A worker in a sawmill who tallies, or calculates, the volume of lumber produced and ready for shipment by counting the units or pieces and recording them by lengths and widths.
Taper A gradual diminution of thickness, diameter or width in a log or piece of lumber.
Taper Sawing A method of sawing logs in which the cuts are made parallel to the bark rather than to the longitudinal axis of the log; this results in a greater percentage of straight grained lumber.
Therm A unit of heat equal to 100,000 British thermal units.
Thick and Thin A thickness variation within a board or between two boards.
Third Clear The highest grade of shop lumber. Officially called Factory Select or #3 Clear, this grade will yield a high percentage of cuttings, but represents a small portion of a mill's total shop production.
Throat The bottom of the space between saw teeth.
Tight Knot One so fixed by growth, shape, or position that it retains its place in a piece of lumber.
Timber Harvest Plan (THP) A document describing how a timber harvest will be executed. Required by law in some states.
Tipped Saw A circular saw having teeth tipped with tungsten-carbide.
Tipple A short conveyor, one end of which can be raised or lowered.
TL T/L Truckload.
TOC Timber Operators Council.
Tolerance in Sawing The accuracy of a saw cut, which depends on type of saw sharpness tension speed, and other factors.
Tongs An implement used to pick up logs. Tongs usually have spiked points for biting into logs to establish a sure grip.
Top Head A knife head on a planer that surfaces the top wide face of the piece.
Torn Grain A surface irregularity in a piece of lumber, caused when the wood is torn our during surfacing.
Track-Loaded Kiln A kiln system in which the wood to be dried is placed on wheeled carts, which are then pushed along rails or tracks into the kiln.
Trade Association An organization of businesses in the same line of work, formed to promote their common interests.
Trader One who buys or sells forest products, usually at the mill or wholesale level. Often used loosely to refer to anyone involved in buying or selling, at any level of the distribution system.
Tramp Metal Bits of metal, such as spikes driven into a tree and overgrown, that can damage saws.
Transfer Price The price at which intracompany trades are consummated; for example, from a firm's sawmill to a company-owned wholesale warehouse.
Treated Wood products infused or coated with any of a variety of stains or chemicals designed to retard fire, decay, insect damage, or deterioration due to weather.
Trim Millwork, primarily mouldings and/or trim to finish off window and door openings, etc.
Trim Ends Short lengths of lumber trimmed off in the manufacturing process. Trims are made to achieve uniform lengths or to remove defects.
Trim Saw A set of saws, usually circular, used to cut lumber to various lengths by lowering individual blades to make contact with the lumber as it passes beneath the saws on a moving chain.
Trimback Allowance The extra length allowed when bucking logs to permit squaring during the manufacturing process.
Truck Market The area in which lumber is traded for truck shipment, as opposed to rail shipment.
Turning Square A bolt of wood intended for shaping on a lathe.
U Index
UBC Uniform Building Code.
Under Bark A method of measuring timber volume that excludes the tree's bark.
Under-Run A loss in inventory volume, so that the amount manufactured or sold was less than was indicated by the volume of raw material.
Unedged Lumber whose edges have not been squared; waney.
Unit A stack of lumber or panels, usually of a standard size.
Unmerchantable Logs or products that are not salable due to small size, defects, etc.
Unscrambler A piece of sawmill equipment that straightens out jumbled accumulations of lumber that collect on a transfer chain before the lumber is further processed. The lumber pieces are separated and delivered, one layer deep, to the machine in an orderly manner.
Unseasoned Lumber that has not been dried to a specified moisture content before surfacing. Moisture content above 19%.
Unsound Knot One containing decay.
Utility A grade of softwood lumber used when a combination of strength and economy is desired. It is suitable for many uses in construction, but lacks the strength of Standard.
utility and Better (Util&Btr) A mixture of light framing lumber grades with the lowest being Utility. The "and Better" signifies that some percentage of the mixture is of a higher grade than Utility.
Utility Log A log that does not meet the grade requirements of a sawlog or peeler, but which will yield at least 50% of its gross volume in wood chips.
V Index
Vacuum Drying A method of drying wood by subjecting it to alternating periods of heated atmosphere, or to fluid and pressures below the normal atmospheric level.
Value-Added Product A product whose value has been changed by further processing such as remanufacturing, or by marketing, such as the wholesale function.
Variable Costs Expenses incurred in the process of manufacturing a product. Variable costs include raw materials, as well as outlays for labor, energy, and supplies.
Variation in Sawing A deviation from the line of cut.
Vertical Edger An edging machine consisting of band, rather than circular, saws; used to edge large cants.
Vertical Resaw A band resaw mounted vertically to break down cants from the headrig.
Vibratory Conveyor A device that moves material, such as particleboard furnish, while at the same time separating the pieces by size.
Visual Grading The grading of lumber, plywood, veneer, or other products by a person who follows specific rules. Appearance, the presence of knots, wane, splits, ad all other characteristics are taken into consideration by a grader when visually inspecting a wood product.
W Index
Wane Bark, or the lack of wood from any cause, on the edge or corner of a piece of lumber.
Waney Cant A slab cut from a log, having a sawn face and back, and rounded edges.
Warp Any variation from a true or plane surface, including bow, crook, cup, or any combination of these.
Wastewood The edgings and scraps left after processing a log, to be converted into pulp chips.
Wavy Dressing A manufacturing defect involving an unevenness greater an that found through knife marks. Characterized as; very light, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy.
WCLIB West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau.
West Coast Freight The freight rates applicable to shipments from mills located west of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon, and on the Northern California coast, into generally eastern consuming regions.
White Fir Abies concolor The most important of the true firs, this species is found in a wide range in the western U.S. Northern California accounts for the majority of White Fir lumber produced in the U.S. The wood is straight-grained, fine-textured, and relatively light. It is used in general construction and for such specialized uses as mouldings and doors.
White Speck A fungus, that develops in a living tree. It does not develop after the tree has been cut, but causes clusters of small white areas in the wood.
Wholesaler One who purchases material from a producer for the purpose of resale to retailers, remanufacturers, or industrial users.
Whorl A group of branches occurring on one point of a tree.
Wides The wider width of dimension or board lumber, usually 10- and 12 inch widths.
Wind Load The force on a structure caused by the wind.
Wood The part of a tree within the cambium, used in the production of a wide variety of items due to its lightness and strength.
Wood Log A log grade ranking above cull but below #3 common or better lumber of at least one third of the gross scale amount.
Woodworker A person who performs a variety of tasks having to do with the processing of timber into lumber, plywood, or other products. Although the term can be applied to loggers, it most often is used to describe workers in a factory.
Workability A reference to the degree of ease with which a species of wood may be cut, shaped, smoothed, or otherwise processed.
Working Circle A general area of forest land tributary to a specific processing location.
Wormy A term used to describe wood that has been attacked by any of a variety of borers.
Worst Face The back, or poorer face on a piece of lumber.
WWPA Western Wood Products Association.
X Index
Y Index
Yard A place where wood products are stored or made available for sale. There are mill yards, distribution yards, and retail yards.
Yard Stain Stain that develops in air drying.
Yew A fine-grained, elastic coniferous tree of the genus Tacus. Varieties grow in many parts of the world.
Yield The amount of product recovered from a given quantity of raw material.
Z Index